예약금없는출장샵
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  • 군산출장샵☆24시출장샵→군산동대문구 안마방[군산안마방 카드]➺‹군산콜걸만남›☵군산모텔オ군산누루 마사지“군산부산 모텔 추천⇩군산이동국 안마방┭군산송파구 안마방

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    부산출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    군산출장샵⇥출장부르는법↱군산동대문구 안마방[군산타이마사지 가격]♐‹군산동두천 마사지›➹군산신사역 안마방↖군산일산 타이 마사지▪군산포이 펫 카지노 롤링○군산잠실 안마방↣군산게이 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 정읍마닐라 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    군산출장샵♩24시출장샵↳군산동대문구 안마방[군산안마방 단발]⊕‹군산안마방 나무›◄군산저주파 마사지⇄군산거유 마사지◑군산마사지 분수✏군산울산 삼산동 안마방⇀군산동대구 여관

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    군산출장샵┆출장부르는법☞군산동대문구 안마방[군산회음부 마사지]♡‹군산파주 마사지›♡군산안마방 섹스♂군산모텔 여자レ군산거제도 안마방↖군산사우나 마사지╪군산속초 모텔 가격

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대전출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    군산출장샵┄예약금없는출장샵⇪군산동대문구 안마방[군산싱가포르 마사지]⇐‹군산가슴 마사지›✌군산불광 여관╉군산금천구 안마방♂군산포승읍 안마방♪군산광주 안마방 추천♧군산보령 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 대구국산 안마방 몰카 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    군산출장샵↼출장부르는법↷군산동대문구 안마방[군산안마방 업소]♚‹군산부산 안마방›▩군산광주 터미널 근처 모텔┚군산안마방 출근부⇣군산콜걸출장안마➹군산고주파 마사지™군산안마방 커뮤니티

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 바카라사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    군산출장샵군산남친 안마방

  • 고령서울대입구 마사지
  • 군산안마방 단골
  • 군산출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    군산출장샵▄예약금없는출장샵┰군산동대문구 안마방[군산일반인 마사지]╳‹군산태국 전립선 마사지›╡군산태국 마사지 가격┯군산아마 시안♤군산국노✖군산역곡 마사지§군산군대 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 문경안마 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 창원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대전출장안마
    목포마사지 1인샵 카지노사이트 동인천만수동 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 구미출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    군산출장샵☞출장부르는법┾군산동대문구 안마방[군산출장 후기]╗‹군산강서구청 마사지›╖군산마사지 남친↳군산동대구 마사지♐군산서현역 마사지╉군산수안보 마사지►군산동암 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 예천여대생 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    군산출장샵☐예약◎군산동대문구 안마방[군산여성 전용 마사지 알바]⇇‹군산피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지›⇛군산오피걸♚군산일본식 마사지╦군산안마방 감염リ군산전주 마사지 클럽║군산안마방 터치

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 광주출장안마 .

    서울두피 마사지
    천안중국전통마사지 카지노사이트 군산출장 모텔
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    군산출장샵ミ예약금없는출장샵◣군산동대문구 안마방[군산마사지방]┦‹군산마사지 앱›☑군산호텔 마사지ェ군산사상 마사지◑군산한국야동 안마방유군산일본인 안마방テ군산논현동 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    군산출장샵ⓥ출장부르는법β군산동대문구 안마방[군산출장만족보장]✎‹군산모란 마사지›➶군산마산 모텔 추천→군산안마방 휴게텔┕군산예약✪군산사각턱 마사지♛군산안마방 물다이 몰카

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 진주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 전라북도해변 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    군산출장샵ξ24시출장샵┻군산동대문구 안마방[군산퇴폐 마사지]♚‹군산마사지 팁›┏군산평택 마사지➨군산다낭 마사지 추천큐군산포항 양덕 마사지┧군산죽전 안마방➵군산하노이 vip 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    군산출장샵✦출장부르는법◦군산동대문구 안마방[군산안마방 존댓말]⚘‹군산안마방 마사지›ノ군산러시아 오피 후기✌군산머리 마사지┉군산창원 안마방 후기➚군산수암 마사지◁군산태국 현지 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 충주요괴 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 카지노사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 수원출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 강릉다낭 밤문화 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 온라인카지노 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    군산출장샵⇚예약금없는출장샵♕군산동대문구 안마방[군산해변 마사지]↼‹군산아가씨 출장›✍군산마사지 수면실☆군산마사지 전단지ⓥ군산체코 마사지♀군산모텔출장마사지샵♮군산신천 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 천안출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 원주출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and lemondeacademy.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    군산출장샵╗24시출장샵♠군산동대문구 안마방[군산뒷목 마사지]◊‹군산카톡 조건›α군산천안 출장 마사지ム군산섹시 마사지♚군산화성 안마방▧군산모텔 전화♦군산포이 펫 카지노 롤링

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    청도안마방 지명녀
    대전출장샵 여수하노이 마사지 진주출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    군산출장샵♐출장부르는법►군산동대문구 안마방[군산서면 안마방]☏‹군산사당›╏군산안마방 쓰리섬┾군산서양 마사지➢군산아마 시안キ군산일본 av 마사지⇗군산아빠의 젊은 애인과 끈적한 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.군산출장샵군산안마방 가격♨군산남편 마사지❖‹군산홈 타이 마사지›군산안마방 대기♬군산op╝군산안중 모텔┵군산타이 마사지 팁♗대전출장샵24시출장샵군산마사지 품번 추천✖군산일본 안마방 야동⇉(군산아줌마 마사지)군산군산 모텔 가격♜군산출장시┿군산사당☎군산통영 안마방㊣군산출장샵장수하복대 안마방군산로미 로미 마사지 란◐군산눈 마사지☼‹군산피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지›군산광양 안마방╊군산상록수 안마방✪군산김천 안마방↕군산안마방 porn┲군산도봉구 안마방▧군산중리동 안마방➶《군산안마방 물다이 몰카》군산출장샵►군산감성 마사지┷군산관자놀이 마사지✉군산출장 마사지 후기☚ 군산청주 마사지♥군산프리마호텔 마사지-〖군산마사지 자격증〗군산안마방 서비스➷군산유성 안마방╀군산안마방 bj⇗군산에가오 마사지↠군산인계동 안마방¤군산동탄 안마방♪ 【군산다낭 에덴 마사지】군산하남 마사지╒군산치앙마이 마사지☺군산홍성 안마방↠군산간석동 안마방↖출장부르는법동인천나무위키 안마방예약군산안마방 video♨군산신촌 마사지┡(군산해운대 안마방)군산안마방 국산➻군산아프리카 마사지╩군산다낭 밤문화 마사지♧군산경추성 두통 마사지┎군산출장샵군산출장샵카지노사이트군산마사지 구인군산안마방 왕가슴녀군산분당 안마방군산팔 마사지군산출장샵군산해운대 출장╮군산시흥동 안마방○〈군산안마방 사이트〉군산호치민 마사지♟군산출장마사지☶군산광명사거리 안마방⇚군산고양이 안마방╝포천장유 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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